[personal profile] 7rin
Delayed Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Model for Schizophrenia and Depression
(The Unification Theory of Mental Illness)

Clancy D. McKenzie, M.D., B.C.E.T.S
Philadelphia Psychiatric Consultation Service



A combat veteran exposed to a loud noise 10, 20, or 30 years after combat reacts in a predictable way. Any event, sufficiently intense and similar to earlier combat experience, can precipitate a flashback or even a delayed Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. The reaction is understood because the initial combat experience was life-threatening.

Few realize that separation from the mother to the baby can be more frightening than war trauma to the soldier. For 150 million years of patterning of the mammalian brain, separation from the mother has meant death, and thus the human infant is very sensitive and easily overwhelmed by events that would seem non-traumatic to the adult.

To the soldier, a loud noise in the present precipitates a flashback to a loud noise in the distant past. To the schizophrenic, separation from a "most important person" (husband, wife, girlfriend, boyfriend) - or group - in the present, precipitates a flashback to separation from the "most important person" (mother) in the distant past. The author has found that each initial psychotic episode - if the history is known - is precipitated by a separation from a most important person (or group) in the present.

To the soldier, the flashback is to combat experience, behavior and reality. To the schizophrenic, the flashback is to infant experience, behavior and reality. Each piece of bizarre reality and behavior of the schizophrenic matches in some way that of the infant at the time/age of the original trauma.

Read more... )

©1998 by The American Academy of Experts in Traumatic Stress, Inc.
[personal profile] 7rin
Prepared by Patrick Dowd (.pdf file)
Office of the Family & Children’s Ombudsman

Governor Gregoire:

We are pleased to submit the Report on Severe Abuse of Adopted Children. This report is a joint project of the Children’s Administration and the Office of the Family and Children’s Ombudsman and examines ways to improve our adoption system, protect children and strengthen families.

To assist our work, we convened a multi-disciplinary group of professionals within the child welfare and adoption system. The report’s objective analysis of adoption issues and corresponding recommendations resulted from the efforts and collective knowledge of this workgroup. We appreciate the contributions of each member and the dedication they brought to this project.

The report recommendations address each phase of the adoption process from assessing and training prospective adoptive parents, to support services for adopted children and their families. In order to implement the majority of these recommendations, it is essential that CA develop a detailed work plan identifying a strategy and timeframe to carry out these reforms.

While cases of severe abuse and neglect of adopted children are not unique to Washington State, our state is in the forefront of efforts to strengthen the adoption process to address this issue. Thank you for your leadership and commitment to excellence in our child welfare system.

Sincerely,
Mary Meinig & Denise Revels Robinson

Click here to read the rest of the report.
[personal profile] 7rin
Socialization, Language, and Scenic Understanding. Alfred Lorenzer's Contribution to a Psycho-societal Methodology
Henning Salling Olesen, Kirsten Weber

Abstract

The article is a guided tour to Alfred LORENZER's proposal for an "in-depth hermeneutic" cultural analysis methodology which was launched in an environment with an almost complete split between social sciences and psychology/psychoanalysis. It presents the background in his materialist socialization theory, which combines a social reinterpretation of the core insights in classical psychoanalysis—the unconscious, the drives—with a theory of language acquisition. His methodology is based on a transformation of the "scenic understanding" from a clinical to a text interpretation, which seeks to understand collective unconscious meaning in text, and is presented with an illustration of the interpretation procedure from social research. Then follows a brief systematic account of key concepts and ideas—interaction forms, engrams, experience, symbolization, language game, utopian imagination—with an outlook to the social theory connections to the Frankfurt School. The practical interpretation procedure in a LORENZER-based psycho-societal research is briefly summarized, emphasizing the role of the researcher subjects in discovering socially unconscious meaning in social interaction. Finally an outlook to contemporary epistemological issues. LORENZER's approach to theorize and research the subject as a socially produced entity appears as a psycho-societal alternative to mainstream social constructivism.

URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1203229
[personal profile] 7rin
http://birthpsychology.com/

APPPAH is a public-benefit educational and scientific organization offering information, inspiration, and support to medical professionals, expecting parents and all persons interested in expanding horizons of birth psychology. Come explore, learn, and work with us!

The Association for Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology and Health

The "prenatal" in our title refers to the period of about nine months including conception and the whole of gestation, while "perinatal" refers to the very short but crucial period of hours involving labor, birth, and establishment of breastfeeding. We believe that both these prenatal and perinatal experiences are formative for both babies and parents, and tend to establish patterns of intimacy and sociality for life. At stake here is quality of life--the quality of personal relationships and the quality of society itself. Ultimately, we like to point out, "Womb ecology becomes world ecology.

These pages are made possible by the APPPAH COMMUNITY which has been generating news, research, conferences, books and journals since 1983. You are invited to enrich your personal growth, parenting wisdom, or professional skills by joining the APPPAH Community, accessing our resources, and signing up for our conferences.

APPPAH task forces publish The APPPAH Newsletter and the Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, hold regional and international conferences, promote research, serve the public with valuable directories and resources, work to enhance the pregnancy experience and prevent birth trauma. APPPAH members have been at the forefront in recognizing the multiple traumas of modern pregnancy and birth and developing practical therapeutic methods to deal with them.
[personal profile] 7rin
Babies are being snatched for adoption John Hemming is right, says Consumer Group
Press Release - 29th January 2007

The government is denying that social workers are targeting babies for adoption. Listening to desperate calls from pregnant women or mothers of new babies and toddlers on our help-line would quickly show their denials are not true.

Health visitors are often instructed to give all parents a "risk rating", if possible while the child is still in the womb, or soon after the birth - this is done without parents' knowledge or consent. The questionnaire used is highly inaccurate as a predictive tool, and has a very high rate of false positives. Pregnant teenagers, the unemployed, anyone with a history of mental illness, and so on, are on the watch list - supposedly so that they can get extra support, but it is often simply extra surveillance. Midwives are instructed to report risk factors, and are losing the trust of the women they care for.

Read more... )
[personal profile] 7rin
From Adoption Advertising

There are many more couples looking to adopt babies than there are babies available. The cost of an individual adoption can vary greatly depending on a number of factors. Living expenses vary depending on the length of the pregnancy and the temperament of the individual birthmother. Keep in mind, some states cap living expenses, some don't. Also, professional costs vary from state to state. It's also important to remember that economy is not always the best strategy. You definitely want to make sure that the professionals handling your case know what they are doing.
The following is a range of total costs and the minimum budget we require to work with us.. It does not include your homestudy, adoptive parent travel costs, and some states birth mother medical expenses, but does include our fee, travel costs for the birthmother, living expenses, social work and legal fees.

Caucasian: $25K - $40K Min. Budget of $25K
Biracial: $18K to $25K Min. Budget of $18K
AA: $15K to $20K Min. Budget of $15K

Of course, everyone wants the most economical adoption possible. We normally give the cases with little or no living expenses to adoptive parents that have had fall-thrus. Last minute situations or those with the baby already born, which by their nature are cheaper, require adoptive parents that are willing to act swiftly and take some risks. There are often unknowns about the birthfather, CPS involvement and drug use. If you are the kind of adoptive parent that wants to know everything about a particular situation then an almost or already born situation is not for you.
[personal profile] 7rin
Teenage Childbearing and Its Life Cycle Consequences
Exploiting a Natural Experiment

V. Joseph Hotz, Susan Williams McElroy and Seth G. Sanders
Abstract

We exploit a "natural experiment" associated with human reproduction to identify the causal effect of teen childbearing on the socioeconomic attainment of teen mothers. We exploit the fact that some women who become pregnant experience a miscarriage and do not have a live birth. Using miscarriages an instrumental variable, we estimate the effect of teen mothers not delaying their childbearing on their subsequent attainment. We find that many of the negative consequences of teenage childbearing are much smaller than those found in previous studies. For most outcomes, the adverse consequences of early childbearing are short-lived. Finally, for annual hours of work and earnings, we find that a teen mother would have lower levels of each at older ages if they had delayed their childbearing.

Received October 1, 2002.
Accepted July 1, 2004.
© 2005 by the Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System
[personal profile] 7rin
Get your bargain basement baby from Ever-Lasting Adoptions...

{quote}
In recognition of November as National Adoption Month and in an effort to help all of our prospective adoptive parents in these difficult economic times of today, we have made the decision to lower our fees for the BI-RACIAL THROUGH CAUCASIAN program to $5000 total and the FULL AFRICAN AMERICAN PROGRAM TO $3000.
{/quote}
[personal profile] 7rin
Adoption Issues From a Strengths Perspective
By Deborah H. Siegel, PhD, LICSW, DCSW, ACSW
Social Work Today - July/August 2008 Issue - Vol. 8 No. 4 P. 34

Birth parents, adoptive parents, and adoptees face predictable crises given the life-changing nature of this event. Idealized or deficit approaches don't work, but a strengths perspective does.

Sam is a bright, energetic, enthusiastic 12-year-old boy. His mom and dad, Mary and Mack, love him dearly and are earnest, skilled parents who conscientiously create a nurturing home. Sam thrives; he has a best friend next door, gets Bs in school, attends weekly religious school and prayer services, walks his dog every day after school, and enjoys riding his bike and playing his electric guitar. He and his parents often go on hikes, attend sporting events, and take day trips as a family or with friends. It appears that Sam is doing well because he is adopted.

This description accurately summarizes Sam's life, and so does this: Sam was born with cocaine, marijuana, and alcohol in his tiny body. Sam's birth father, incarcerated shortly after Sam was conceived, has never seen him. The state child welfare agency removed Sam from his mother's custody shortly after birth, and in the first two years of life, Sam lived in four different foster homes before he was legally freed for adoption. Sam's behavior is often impulsive, hyperactive, and inattentive. His classmates tend to steer clear of him because he bumps into them, grabs their things, or blurts out rude comments (e.g., "You're stupid!"). Homework is a daily struggle, as Sam finds it hard to sit still and stay on task. He often forgets, loses, or partially completes his assignments. Lately, his behavior at home has been especially irritable; when his parents prompt him to do a task he doesn't like, he yells, "You're not the boss of me!" and stomps away. He's spending more time alone in his room. It appears that Sam is struggling because he is adopted.

Read more... )

- Deborah H. Siegel, PhD, LICSW, DCSW, ACSW, is a professor in the School of Social Work at Rhode Island College, a clinician specializing in adoption issues, an adoption researcher, and an adoptive parent.
[personal profile] 7rin
"Borrowed" from http://fightagainstcps.tripod.com/id37.html and speel-chucked to clean it up a bit before re-posting.

Adopted Child Syndrome (ACS) - It's history & relevance today

According to public opinion polls, most Americans agree that adoption is at least a "risk factor" to a child's developmental, behavioral and academic development. The belief that adoption has a psychology of its own is evidenced by clinical studies amassed both prior to and since the late 1940s when the states began making adoptees' origins secret.

Read more... )
[personal profile] 7rin
BY ROBIN HILBORN, Family Helper editor
Peter Selman (Mar. 15, 2011)

Year after year, the numbers are falling. International adoptions peaked in 2004 at over 45,000 and fell to about 30,000 in 2009, a decrease of one-third in six years.

The current decline looks set to continue in 2010 and onward, Dr. Peter Selman of Britain's Newcastle University told Family Helper (www.familyhelper.net).

Dr. Selman is an authority on international adoption statistics. His new survey of intercountry adoption in the 21st century will appear as a chapter in Intercountry Adoption: Policies, Practices and Outcomes, edited by Judith Gibbons and Karen Rotabi (Ashgate 2011, forthcoming).

International adoption is complex: in 2009 around 30,000 children left their birth country and moved to a new country often thousands of miles away. China still leads as a source country, sending about 5,000 children to adoptive homes abroad in 2009 (see Table 1 below). U.S. families adopted the most children from other countries: 12,753 in fiscal year 2009 (see Table 2 below).
For decades, until 2004, the numbers had gone steadily upward. In his article "The rise and fall of intercountry adoption in the 21st century" (pdf), (International Social Work, September 2009), Dr. Selman charted how intercountry adoption (ICA) developed over ten years—1998 to 2007—in 22 countries.

He found remarkable changes. Ever since the first children left South Korea in 1953 the numbers rose yearly, to over 45,000 worldwide in 2004. But although the number of applicants in receiving countries kept growing, the global number of adoptions started falling: by 17% between 2004 and 2007.

Dr. Selman sent Family Helper the following tables and graphs, which update these figures to 2009, and chart the rise and fall of ICA in the first decade of the new millennium.

Read the rest over at Family Helper.
[personal profile] 7rin
Brodzinsky, D.M. & Schechter, M.D. (eds) (1990) The Psychology of Adoption. New York; Oxford University Press.

ChapterTitleAuthor/sPage
I - Theoretical Perspectives on Adoption Adjustment
1A Stress and Coping Model of Adoption AdjustmentDavid M. Brodzinsky3
2Biological Perspectives of Adoptee AdjustmentRemi J. Cadoret25
3Adoption from the Inside Out: A Psychoanalytical PerspectivePaul M. Brinich42
4The Meaning of the SearchMarshall D. Schechter and Doris Bertocci62
II - Research on Adoption
5Outcomes in Adoption: Lessons from Longitudinal StudiesMichael Bohman and Sören Sigvardsson93
6Contrasting Adoption, Foster Care, and Residential RearingJohn Triseliotis and Malcolm Hill107
7Acknowledgement or Rejection of Differences?Kenneth Kaye121
8Adoption and Identity FormationJanet L. Hoopes144
9Adopted Adolescents in Residential Treatment: The Role of the FamilyHarold D. Grotevant and Ruth G. McRoy167
10Adjustment in Interracial Adoptees: An OverviewArnold R. Silverman and William Feigelman187
11Adoption Disruption: Rates and CorrelatesTrudy Festinger201
III - Clinical Issues in Adoption
12Family Treatment After Adoption: Common ThemesAnn Hartman and Joan Laird221
13Brief Solution-Focussed Therapy with Adoptive FamiliesJudith Schaffer and Christina Lindstrom240
14The Residential Treatment of Severely Disturbed Adolescent AdopteesWells Goodrich, Carol S. Fullerton, Brian T. Yates, and Linda Beth Berman253
IV - Social Policy and Casework Issues in Adoption
15History, Values, and Placement Policy Issues in AdoptionElizabeth S. Cole and Kathryn S. Donley273
16Surrendering an Infant for Adoption: The Birthmother ExperienceAnne B. Brodzinsky295
17Open AdoptionAnnette Baran and Reuben Pannor316
18Foster Parent Adoption: The Legal FrameworkAndre P. Derdeyn332
[personal profile] 7rin
Issues Facing Adult Adoptees
@ http://www.enotalone.com/article/10075.html

Often when people hear the word "adoption," they think of an infertile, childless couple delightedly gazing into the eyes of their recently adopted newborn baby. They are thrilled to finally be parents, and are totally involved in meeting the immediate needs of the child. But what about the years that follow? Do the effects of adoption stop the moment that a child comes home to the new parents?

Read more... )
[personal profile] 7rin
Ahn-Redding, H. & Simon, R.J. (2007) Intercountry Adoptees Tell Their Stories @ http://www.rowmanlittlefield.com/Catalog/SingleBook.shtml?command=Search&db=^DB/CATALOG.db&eqSKUdata=0739118560

Bahr, M. & Bahr, K.S. (2009) Toward More Family-Centered Family Sciences: Love, Sacrifice, and Transcendence London: Lexington Books. @ http://www.rowmanlittlefield.com/Catalog/SingleBook.shtml?command=Search&db=^DB/CATALOG.db&eqSKUdata=0739126733

Bell, D.C. (2010) The Dynamics of Connection: How Evolution and Biology Create Caregiving and Attachment. Place: Lexington Books. @ http://www.rowmanlittlefield.com/Catalog/SingleBook.shtml?command=Search&db=^DB/CATALOG.db&eqSKUdata=0739143522

Cornell, D. (2005) Between Women and Generations: Legacies of Dignity @ http://www.rowmanlittlefield.com/Catalog/SingleBook.shtml?command=Search&db=^DB/CATALOG.db&eqSKUdata=0742543706

Dubow, S. (2011) Ourselves unborn : a history of the fetus in modern America. Oxford: Oxford University Press. @ http://www.worldcat.org/title/ourselves-unborn-a-history-of-the-fetus-in-modern-america/oclc/608618101/editions?editionsView=true

Boocock, S.S. & Scott, K.A. (2005) Kids in Context: The Sociological Study of Children and Childhoods @ http://www.rowmanlittlefield.com/Catalog/SingleBook.shtml?command=Search&db=^DB/CATALOG.db&eqSKUdata=0742520242

Callero, P. (2009) The Myth of Individualism: How Social Forces Shape Our Lives @ http://www.rowmanlittlefield.com/Catalog/SingleBook.shtml?command=Search&db=^DB/CATALOG.db&eqSKUdata=0742599892

Gilman, C.P. (2002) Concerning Children @ http://www.rowmanlittlefield.com/Catalog/SingleBook.shtml?command=Search&db=^DB/CATALOG.db&eqSKUdata=0759103895

Hewlett, S.A. & Rankin, N. & West, C (eds.) (2002) Taking Parenting Public: The Case for a New Social Movement @ http://www.rowmanlittlefield.com/Catalog/SingleBook.shtml?command=Search&db=^DB/CATALOG.db&eqSKUdata=0742521109

Mezey, S.G. (2009) Gay Families and the Courts: The Quest for Equal Rights @ http://www.rowmanlittlefield.com/Catalog/SingleBook.shtml?command=Search&db=^DB/CATALOG.db&eqSKUdata=0742562182

Murphy, P.T. (1997) Wasted: The Plight of America's Unwanted Children @ http://www.rowmanlittlefield.com/Catalog/SingleBook.shtml?command=Search&db=^DB/CATALOG.db&eqSKUdata=1566633338

Quiroz, P.A. (2007) Adoption in a Color-Blind Society
Series: Perspectives on a Multiracial America
@ http://www.rowmanlittlefield.com/Catalog/SingleBook.shtml?command=Search&db=^DB/CATALOG.db&eqSKUdata=0742559416

Royce, E. (2008) Poverty and Power: The Problem of Structural Inequality @ http://www.rowmanlittlefield.com/Catalog/SingleBook.shtml?command=Search&db=^DB/CATALOG.db&eqSKUdata=0742564436

Simon, R.J. & Altstein, H (2000) Adoption across Borders: Serving the Children in Transracial and Intercountry Adoptions @ http://www.rowmanlittlefield.com/Catalog/SingleBook.shtml?command=Search&db=^DB/CATALOG.db&eqSKUdata=0847698335
[personal profile] 7rin
Schnitzer, G. and Ewigman, B.G. (2005) Child Deaths Resulting From Inflicted Injuries: Household Risk Factors and Perpetrator Characteristics. Pediatrics 116(5) pp.e687-e693. Available at: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/116/5/e687 [Accessed 16 Dec 2010]

Abstract
Objective. To determine the role of household composition as an independent risk factor for fatal inflicted injuries among young children and describe perpetrator characteristics.

Design, Setting, and Population. A population-based, case-control study of all children <5 years of age who died in Missouri between January 1, 1992, and December 31, 1999. Missouri Child Fatality Review Program data were analyzed. Cases all involved children with injuries inflicted by a parent or caregiver. Two age-matched controls per case child were selected randomly from children who died of natural causes.

Main Outcome Measure. Inflicted-injury death. Household composition of case and control children was compared by using multivariate logistic regression. We hypothesized that children residing in households with adults unrelated to them are at higher risk of inflicted-injury death than children residing in households with 2 biological parents.

Results. We identified 149 inflicted-injury deaths in our population during the 8-year study period. Children residing in households with unrelated adults were nearly 50 times as likely to die of inflicted injuries than children residing with 2 biological parents (adjusted odds ratio: 47.6; 95% confidence interval: 10.4–218). Children in households with a single parent and no other adults in residence had no increased risk of inflicted-injury death (adjusted odds ratio: 0.9; 95% confidence interval: 0.6–1.9). Perpetrators were identified in 132 (88.6%) of the cases. The majority of known perpetrators were male (71.2%), and most were the child's father (34.9%) or the boyfriend of the child's mother (24.2%). In households with unrelated adults, most perpetrators (83.9%) were the unrelated adult household member, and only 2 (6.5%) perpetrators were the biological parent of the child.

Conclusions. Young children who reside in households with unrelated adults are at exceptionally high risk for inflicted-injury death. Most perpetrators are male, and most are residents of the decedent child's household at the time of injury.

Keywords: inflicted injury • child abuse • fatality • risk factors • case-control study
[personal profile] 7rin
Sants, H.J. (1964) Genealogical Bewilderment in Children with Substitute Parents. British Journal of Medical Psychology 37(?). pp.133-141

"In 1964, H.J. Sants ... coined the phrase 'genealogical bewilderment'"

O'Shaughnessy, T. (1994). Adoption, social work and social theory: Making the connections. Brookfield, VT: Ashgate Publishing. (p.119)

Adoption, blood kinship, stigma, and the Adoption Reform Movement: A historical perspective @ http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3757/is_200201/ai_n9059070/pg_10/

Suicidal

Dec. 3rd, 2009 01:48 am
[personal profile] 7rin
Adoptees and suicide?
@ http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20100227185819AAHzL48

Former child welfare clients and suicide?
@ http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20100227224313AAaMNGc

Adoption as a Risk Factor for Attempted Suicide During Adolescence
@ http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/108/2/e30

Adoption: Double risk of suicide, higher risk of ADHD, depression, etc.
@ http://www.adultadoptees.org/forum/index.php?topic=24237.0

von Borczyskowski, A., Hjern, A., Lindblad, F., & Vinnerljung, B. (2006). Suicidal behaviour in national and international adult adoptees. Social Psychiatry & Psychiatric Epidemiology, 41(2), 95-102. doi:10.1007/s00127-005-0974-2

This shows a higher attempt rate for females, but a much higher success rate for males. (AP@AAAFC)

Statistics on the Effects of Adoption
@ http://www.ansrs.com/statistics.htm
[personal profile] 7rin
"The child shall be registered immediately after birth and shall have the right from birth to a name, the right to acquire a nationality and as far as possible, the right to know and be cared for by his or her parents."
The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child - Article 8 (old link)

Why should children only get limited rights to associate with their parents?
[personal profile] 7rin
Adoption and Loss: The Hidden Grief
Evelyn Burns Robinson @ http://www.adoptioncrossroads.org/Adoption&Loss.html (dead link, but review available @ http://www.ccnm-mothers.ca/English/articles/Robinson.htm )

Adoption Healing... the path to recovery for mothers who lost children to adoption
Joe Soll @ https://www.adoptionhealing.com/Moms/

Adoptees in Reunion: The Psychological Integration of Adoption, Motivations for Reunion, and the Reunion Relationship
@ http://www.nla.gov.au/openpublish/index.php/aja/article/view/1447/1776 {.pdf format}

Adoption: Uncharted Waters
David Kirschner @ http://www.adoptionunchartedwaters.com/

Being Adopted: The Lifelong Search for Self
David Brodzinsky @ http://library.adoption.com/articles/being-adopted-the-lifelong-search-for-self.html

Coming Home to Self: The Adopted Child Grows Up
Nancy Verrier @ http://nancyverrier.com/coming-home-to-self/

Journey of the Adopted Self: A Quest for Wholeness
Betty Jean Lifton @ http://www.plumsite.com/bjlifton/

Lost and Found: the Adoption Experience
Betty Jean Lifton @ http://www.plumsite.com/bjlifton/

The Adopted break Silence
Jean Paton @ http://www.uoregon.edu/~adoption/archive/PatonTABS.htm

The Girls Who Went Away
Ann Fessler @ www.thegirlswhowentaway.com/

The Primal Wound: Understanding the Adopted Child
Nancy Verrier @ http://nancyverrier.com/the-primal-wound/

Unlearning Adoption: A Guide to Family Preservation and Protection
Jessica DelBalzo @ http://books.google.co.uk/books/about/Unlearning_Adoption.html?id=AjeXPAAACAAJ

Without a map
Meredith Hall @ http://meredithhall.org/
[personal profile] 7rin
http://changingminds.org/explanations/theories/yale_attitude_change.htm

Description
A Yale University multi-year, multi-project research into persuasive communication showed (amongst other things):

Who (source of communication):
  • The speaker should be credible and attractive to the audience.

Says what (nature of communication):
  • Messages should not appear to be designed to persuade.
  • Present two-sided arguments (refuting the ‘wrong’ argument, of course).
  • If two people are speaking one after the other, it is best to go first (primacy effect).
  • If two people are speaking with a delay between them, it is best to go last (recency effect).

To whom (the nature of the audience)
  • Distract them during the persuasion
  • Lower intelligence and moderate self-esteem helps.
  • The best age range is 18-25.

Example
Watch politicians. They do this wonderfully well. They look great. They talk through the other side's argument, making it first seem reasonable then highlighting all their problems. It all seems to be just common sense spoken by a really nice person...

So what?
Using it
So use the advice. And note the point about 'not appearing to be designed to persuade'. People with new understanding about persuasion can get too enthusiastic about using it, quickly getting to the point where the other people know what they are doing.

See also
Persuasion

References
Hovland, Janis and Kelley (1953)
[personal profile] 7rin
Taken from Nancy Verrier's book, Coming Home to Self.



For the adoptee every day is a challenge of trying to figure out how to be, although he probably doesn't understand the difficulty this presents for him. It has been true his whole life and, therefore, feels normal. However, it takes a great deal of energy and concentration. And it never feels quite right. He never quite fits. Therefore he feels as if /he/ is never quite right.
(pg 50)



Abandonment and neglect are reported to be the two most devastating experiences that children endure - even more devastating then sexual or physical abuse. That's why some neglected children do naughty things to get attention. Even though the attention is hurtful - being yelled at, hit, or otherwise harmed - it is better than neglect. /Anything/ is better than abandonment. Abandonment is a child's greatest fear. For adoptees, it is also reality, embedded in their implicit and unintegrated memory.
(pg 102)



It is sometimes difficult to spot grief in children. After all, it isn't as if the child sits in a puddle of tears his entire childhood. As one adoptee said, "Of course I played, laughed, sang. Do people think that if you're not sitting in a corner with your head on your knees, you are not sad? I had happy times, but the sadness was always there, even when I was having fun."
(pg 117)


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